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1541 Survey of the Middle March

This is a selected transcription of the official View of the Castles, Towers, Barmekyns, and Fortresses of the Frontier of the East and Middle Marches, drawn up with great care by Sir Robert Bowes and Sir Ralph Ellerker at the end of the year 1541, as transcribed by Bates. Bates transcribed the document more fully but this transcription only records the specific references to fortifications and not the recommendations for action or parish descriptions in the original. It should be noted that Bates was transcribing a manuscript (The Cotton MS) which was an early copy of the lost original document.

To avoid an overlong list this page covers only the Middle March, click here for the East March.
Name in Margin Description Modern Name
(click to view record)
West Lilburne Fyrste in the towne of West Lylburne there bene two towers the westerne toure whereof ys of thinherytaunce of one Cuthbert Proctour gent. and for lacke contynuall necessary repac'ons ys fallen greatt ruyne and decaye for all the roves & floors thereof be wasted & fallen downe & nothing standynge but the walles The Esterne toure of the same towne ys the Inherytaunce of Sr Cuthbert Ogle clerke and the rooffe & floores thereof were lately bronghte by soden fyer Lyonell Graye porter of Barwyke ys the fermer & occupyer of bothe the said toures And the fermes belonginge to the same yt were muche co'odyous for the countrye thereaboutes that the said two towers were newly repayred agayne for they stande not onely in a place comodyous for the defence of those quarters in the tyme of peace but also in the tyme of warre they would be able to receyve and lodge an hundreth souldyours in garryson West Lilburn 1
West Lilburn 2
Chillingham The Castell of Chyllingham of thinheritaunce of yonge Raffe Graye of the same beinge in the kinges Mate warde & order duringe his mynorytie & none age ys in measurable good repac'ons for Sr Robert Ellerker knighte havynge the custodye & gov'naunce of the said castell hath of late newly reparelled tke same Chillingham Castle
Hebburne At Hebburne ys a lytle toure of thinherytaunce of Thomas Hebburne in reasonable good rep'ac'ons Hepburn Bastle, Chillingham
Bewike At Bewyke ys a good tower of the kinges Mate Inherytaunce as of the augmentac'ons of his graces crowne late belonginge to the subpressed monastery of Tynemouthe A parte thereof ys newly cov'ed wth leade & thother p'te ys not well cov'ed nor in good repac'ons And yt is much requyste that the said tower were kept in convenyent reparll for yt standeth in a fytte place for the defence of the countrye thereabouts And is able in tyme of warre to conteyne fyftye men in garryson Old Bewick Tower
Ilderton At Ilderton there ys a great tower wth a stronge barmekyn of stone of thinherytaunce of Rauffe Ilderton gentleman whiche for lacke of contyuall necessarye rep'ac'ns ys fallen in extreme ruyne & decaye and all the Roffes & flores thereof wasted & nothinge standinge but the bare walles It were muche necessarye and requysyte to have the said fortresse repared for yt standeth uttermost in that p'te nexte unto the waste under the southe syde of Chevyott And yf yt were in good repac'ons yt would well receyve & lodge fyftie souldiors in tyme of warre Ilderton Tower
Roddon At Roddome there is a lytle toure wthout a barmekyn of thinherytance of John Roddom esquier the rooffe ys decayed for lacke of necessarye repacon'ns Roddam Tower
Crawley At Crawley there is a lytle toure of thinherytance of the daughter and heyre of S Wll'm Heron in greatt decaye for lacke of contynuall reparac'ons Crawley Tower
Titlington At Tytlyngton ys a lytle toure of the kinges Mate Inherytance late belonginge to the Supp'ssed monastery of Kyrkeh'm decayed in the rooffes for lacke of repac'ons And the Imbattlementes thereof nev' fynyshed Titlington Tower
Shawden At Shawden ys a toure of thinheritaunce of Cuthb't Proctour in measurable good repac'ons Shawdon Hall
Whittingame At Whyttyngame bene two towers whereof the one ys the mansion of the vycaredge & thother of the Inhertitance of Rb't Collyngewood esquier & bothe be in measurable good repac'ons Whittingham Tower
Whittingham Vicarage
Callalye At Callalye ys a toure of thinheritaunce of Claverynge in measurable good repac'ons Callaly Castle
Eslington At Eslyngton ys a toure wth a barmekyn of the Inherytaunce of one ... Heslerygge esquier And in the tenor & occupaco'n of Robt. Collingewood esqui' who kepeth the same in good repac'ons1 Eslington Tower
Ingrame Ingrame ys a lytle toure wch ys the mansion house of the p'sonage there & for lacke of contynuall necessary repac'ns ys fallen in greatt decaye in the Cov'ynge & Rooffes thereof Also a lytle by west the said toure of Ingrame the ryv' or water of Brymshe by rage of floodes hath worne sore upon the southe bank thereof that except there be shortely made a were & defence of the same yt is very lyke in contynuance of tyme to were awaye both the said towne of Ingram & tower aforesaid Ingram Vicars Pele
Great Ryle At Great Ryle there hath one Thomas Collingewood gent' newly buylded a toure upon the Inherytaince of Robt Collingewood And is mynded to buylde lykewise a barmekyn about the same as his power may serve thereunto Great Ryle Tower
Prendike At Prendyke ys lykewyse a lytle toure newlye buylded by one Thomas Aldye gent. thinheryoure of the same Prendwick Tower
Aylnane At Alname be two lytle toures whereof thone ys the mansion of the vycaredge and thother of the Inherytaunce of the kinges matie p'cell of the late Erle of Northumb'landes landes beinge scarcely in good reparac'ons2 Alnham Earls Pele
Alnham Vicars Pele
Screynwood At Scrynwood is a toure & a barmekyn of the Inherytance of John Horseley esquier kepte in very good repac'ons Scrainwood Tower
Bittilsden At Byttylsden ys a toure & a barmekyn of the Inherytance of Percyvall Selby esqui' in good repac'ons & nere unto the same ys an other lytle toure at a place called the Cotte walles in measurable good repac'ons of the said p'cyvall Selbyes Inherytaunce Biddlestone Hall
Cote Walls Tower, Biddlestone
Borrodone At Borrodone ys a great toure of thinherytaunce of George Fenwycke & Percyvall Lysle in the right of his wyfe whiche for lacke of necessary repac'ons ys fallen into extreme ruyne & decaye Burradon in Coquetdale
Clennell At Clennell ys a lytle toure of thinherytaunce of one p'cyvall Clennell gent newly reparelled and brattyshed by the same p'cyvall And also he ys makinge of a newe barmekyn about the same as his power will extende thereunto Clennell Hall
Allayton At Allayton3 ys a lytle bastell house of stone the mansion of the vycaredge scaresly in good repac'ons Alwinton Vicarage
The Linnebrigg At the Lynne brigge there hath bene a stone house of thinherytaunce of one Rog' Horseley but yt was bronnte & casten downe by the Scottes in tyme paste, and the owener hathe gathered the stones thereof unto a place of more strength nere unto the same, and to buylde a newe bastell house as his power wyll serve hym Intendeth4 Linbrig Pele
Tharnam At Tharnam5 ys a toure of thinherytance of one Rog' Horseley in measurable good repac'ons Farnham Tower, Hepple
Nether Trewhitt At nether Trewhytt ys a toure of thinherytance of Edward Gallon in measurable good repac'ons Low Trewhitt
Hephell At Hephell ys a toure of thinherytaunce of the lorde Ogle decayed in the roofes & scarcely in good repac'ons Hepple Tower
Throptone At Throptone ys a lytle toure of thinherytaunce of Sr Cuthb't Ratclyffe knighte Thropton Tower
Cartington At Cartyngton ys a good fortresse of twoo toures & other stronge stone houses of the Inherytau'ce of the said Sr Cuthb' Ratclyffe knight & kepte in good repac'ons Cartington Castle
Harbottle Castle Apon the Southe syde of the ryv'r of Cockett ys a stronge place & metely for the defence of all the countrye aswell againste the Invasion & Incourse of Scottes in tyme of warre as for defence of the theftes & spoyles of the Ryddesdayle men standeth the castell of Harbottell wythin the said country of Ryddesdayle and ys the Inherytannce of the lorde Taylboys heyres & is for lacke of necessary repac'ons fallen into extreme ruyne & decaye that greatt pety yt is to see for suerly that castell ys muche necessary for the comon welthe of those p'ties to be reparelled & kepte in repac'ons For it serveth not onely for defences as ys aforesaid but also yf yt were in suche good state as hath bene yt would in tyme of warre receyve & lodge an hundrethe souldiors & their horses And also there is no other convenient place for the keeper of Ryddesdayle to dwell in to conserve the Ryddesdayle men in good rule & for the chastysinge of the evell desposed people of the same when they offende And yt is so farre rune in ruyne in the cov'ture Roffes floores & walles both in stone worke tymbre & leade That we can not esteme the charge of repac'ons thereof to bringe yt into suche a convenyent state as yt hathe bene & as yt was ordeyned afore to be any lesse some then foure hundreth poundes And the owner thereof hathe no tymber of his owne in those p'ties to repare yt wth all nor none groweth nere thereunto but that the kinges matie hath in Rothebury forrest & breakeburne being p'celles of thaugmentac'ons of his graces crowne asmuche tymbre growinge as we esteme will sufficiently serve for the repac'ons of the castell And yf yt be not amended in brefe tyme yt will more & more decaye & shortlely be paste Inhabytac'on which would be a m'velous great hurte & loss to all that countrye Harbottle Castle
Barrow At Barrow a lytle above Harbottell upon the southe syde of the same ryv'r of Cokett standeth the olde walles of a lytle fortresse of the Inherytance of one Gerrard Barrowe which in tyme past was brounte & rased by the Scottes ina warre tyme And so remaineth still waste because the oweners thereof have bene but poor men and not able nor of power sythens to reparell the same Barrow Peel
Hare Cewgh At a place called the hare clewgh one Rog' hangingeshawes hath lately buylded upon his own Inherytance a stronge pele house of stone in a convenyent place for resystence of the Incourse of theves of Ryddesdayle and he ys not able to defaulte of substance to p'forme & fynyshe the same Harehaugh Old Farm
Great Tosson At Great Tosson is a tower of the lorde Ogles Inherytance & not in good rep'ac'ons Great Tosson Tower
Wytton At Whytton nere unto Rotheberye is a toure & a lytle barmekin beinge the manc'on of the p'sonage of Rothbery and is in good reparco'ns Whitton Tower
Eliburne At Elyburne p'cell of the lordeshippe of Rotheberye is a strong pele house of the kings maties Inherytaunce as of thaugmentac'ons of his graces crowne & p'cell of the late erle of Northumb'lands landes6 Elyburne; The Lee
Rytton At Rytton is a stone house & a lytle barmekyn of the kinges maties Inherytance p'cell of thaugmentac'ons of his graces crowne lately belonginge to the supp'ssed monastery of Newemnstre scarcely in good repac'ons Ritton White House
Grenelighton At Grenelyghton is a lytle stone house wth barmekyn of the same Inherytance & not in good repac'ons Greenleighton
Rotheley At Rotheley is a lytle towre of the same inherytance in measurable good reparacions Rothley Tower
Harterton At Harterton hall ys a stronge bastell house of the Inherytaunce of Sr John Fenwyke in good repac'ons Hartington Hall, Rothley
The Sawnes At the Sawnes7 is a lytle pele house or bastell of thinherytaunce of the said Sr John Fenwyke in measurable good rep'ac'ons Kirkwhelpington; The Fawns Castle
Wallington At Wallyngton is a stronge toure & a stone house of thinherytance of the said Sr John Fenwyke in good rep'ac'ons Wallington Hall
Little Harle At lytle harle ys a toure of thinherytance of Thomas Fenwyke in good rep'ac'ons Little Harle Tower
Kirk Welpington At Kyrke Whelpyngton is a little toure the mansyon of the vyccaredge in good rep'ac'ons Kirkwhelpington Vicars Pele
Hawike At Hawyke ys a bastell house of thinherytau'ce of one ... Bellyngiam in good rep'ac'ons Hawick Bastle, Bavington
Swetehope At Swetehope is an other bastell house of thinherytance of Sr John Fenwyke knighte in good rep'ac'ons Sweethope Castle, Bavington
Filton more At Fylton more is a bastell house called the Whyte house of the kinges maties Inheritance p'cell of the Augmentac'on of his graces crowne belonginge to the late supp'ssed monastery of Neweminster in measurable good rep'aco'ns White House, Filton Moor
Carre Cottes At Carre Cottes8 in the said Fylton more is an other bastel house of same Inherytance in measurable good repac'ons Carrycoats Hall
Little Swinborne At lytle Swyneburne is a lytle toure of thinheritaunce of Thomas Mydleton of Belso esqui' decayed in the roofes Little Swinburne Tower
Mickle Swinborne At Mykle Swynburne9 hath nebe a great toure of the Inherytaunce of Sr John Wethington knighte but all the rooffes & floores thereof bene decayed & nothinge standinge but the walles Great Swinburne Castle
Gonnerton At Gonnerton is a toure & a stone house of thinherytance of Sr John Fenwyke knighte in good repac'ons Gunnerton Tower, Chollerton
Chipchase At Chypchase ys a fare tower & a manor of stone warke Joyned thereunto of thinherytaunce of John Heron of the same esquier kepte in good repac'ons Chipchase Castle
Symondburne At Symondburne ys a stronge toure of foure house height of thinherytaunce of Sr Wyll'm Herons heyrs and yt standeth of a very stronge ground a myle from Chypchase upon the west side of the ryv' of the northe tyne & ys in measurable good repac'ons Simonburn Tower House
Symondburne And in the same towne of Symondburne ys a nother lytle towre the manc'on of the p'sonage there in measurable good repac'ons Simonburn Rectory
The Hall barnes At the hall barnes in the same towne ys a bastell house of the late Inheritance of Sr Will'm Heron in good repac'cons Hall Barns Bastle, Simonburn
Hawghton At Hawghton two myles southeste from the said towne of Symondburne standeth the wallles of an olde castell or fortresse very stronge but the roofes & floores thereof bene decayed & gone And an olde barmekyn p'tely decayed in the walles thereof of thinherytaunce of Sr John Wetherington knighte & in greatt decaye Haughton Castle, Humshaugh
Tekett At Tekett ys a strong stone house of thinherytaunce of Wyll'm Rydley in good repac'ons Tecket Farmhouse, Simonburn
Carrow At the Carrowe is a toure & a stone house ioyninge to the same of the kinges maties Inherytance p'cell of the augmentac'n of his graces crowne late belonginge to the supp'ssed monastry of Hexam and by a lete dymytted unto Sr Reynold Carnabye knighte for certayne yeres yt lyeth in decaye & not Innabyted nor in good repac'ons Carraw Tower
Sewyngesheales At Sewyngeshealles is an an olde towre of thinherytaunce of John Heron of Chypchace esquier in great decaye in the rooffes & flores & lyeth waste & unplenyshed Sewingshields Castle
Braydley At Braydley ys a stone house of the inherytaunce of Nycolas Carrowe & lyeth wast & unplenyshed Bradley Hall Bastle
Satlingstones At Satlyngestones ys a toure of thinherytaunce of Will'm Carnabye esquier in measurable good rep'aco'ns Settlingstones Tower
Wawetowne At Wawetowne10 is a toure of thinherytance of John Rydley of the same, and is not in good rep'aco'ns Walltown Tower
Thirlewall At Thyrlewall ys a toure of thinherytaunce of Rob't Thyrlewall of the same in measurable good rep'ac'ons Thirlwall Castle
Blenkinsopp At Blenkensoppe ys a toure of thinherytance of John Blenkensoppe & is decayed in the roofe & not in good rep'acons Blenkinsopp Castle
Bellester At Bellester is a bastell house in thoccupac'n of one Blenkensoppe & is in measurable good repaco'ns Bellister Castle
Fetherstonhawgh At Fetherstonhaughe ys a toure of thinherytaunce of Alexander Fetherstonhaughe of the same in good rep'ac'ons Featherstone Castle
Hawtewysle At Hawtewysle is a toure of the thinherytance of Sr Will'm Musgrave knighte in measurable good rep'ac'ons Haltwhistle Musgrove Tower
Willimowteswike At Willymonnteswyke ys a good toure & a stone house ioyninge thereunto of the Inherytaunce of Nycolas Rydley kepte in good rep'ac'ons Willimoteswick Manor, Bardon Mill
Langley At Langley standeth the walles of an olde castell of thinherytaunce of the kinges matie as p'cell of the augmentac'ons of his graces crowne late of thinherytance of therle of Northumb'land All the rooffes & flores thereof be decayed wasted & gone & nothinge remayning but onely the walles and yt standes in a very convenyent place for the defence of the Incourse of the Scottes of Lyddesdale & of the theves of Tyndale Gyllesland & Bowecastell whenthey ryde to steall or spoyle wthin the byshprycke of Duresme Langley Castle
Newbrough At the Newbrough is a toure of thinherytaunce of the lorde Burrowe in measureable good rep'aco'ns Thornton Tower, Newbrough
heslesyde nor there ys now standinge wthin the said countrye of Tyndall any towers save one lytle tower at heslesyde of thinherytaunce of one ... Charleton sone to Edward Charleton deceased Hesleyside Tower
Tarsett hawle There was wthin the said countrye of Tyndall an other tower called Tarsett hall of the lorde Burrowes Inherytaunce the which was brounte by the said Tyndalles xvj yeres sythence & more at a tyme when Sr Rauffe Fenwyke lay wth a certayne garryson in the tower of Tarsett hall for the reformac'on of certayne mysorders wthin the said countrye of Tyndall Tarset Castle
Warke There is also an olde mansion and apparence of a fortresse that hath bene in tyme passed at a place in Tyndall called Warke wythin twoo myles or lesse of the said Bellingeam of the kinges maties Inherytaunce which Warke ys the chefe Sygnoury & Manor whereof aswell all the said country of Tyndall as almost all the townes standinge betwene the said riv's of north tyne and South Tyne bene holden and at the said Warke ys there a courte or lawe daye kepte at suche tymes as the kep' of Tyndale doth appoynte the same. Wark on Tyne Castle

Map of 1541 survey

Footnotes from Bates