In 1345 Aug 5, Prior et Conventus Roff. (Prior John de Scapeya (John Sheppey)) were granted, by Edward III, (In year 19 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate Rochester (St Andrews Priory, Rochester)
Licence for the prior and convent of Rochester to build a wall of stone and mortar from the east gate of the city of Rochester as far as the gate of St. William, between the city and their orchard (gardinum), and crenellate the same. By p.s. (CPR)
quendam murum de petra et calce a porta orientali civitis Roff usque ad Portam Sancti Guilli. inter dictam civitatem et gardinum eorundem Prioris et Conventus facere, &c. et kernellare, &c. (Turner and Parker)
Granted at Westminster. Grant by privy seal.
Original source is;
Lyte, H.C. Maxwell (ed), 1902, Calendar of Patent Rolls (1343-45) p. 539 online copy
(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation
of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be
noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or
early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect
the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to
the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)
Significant later sources are;
Coulson, Charles, 2007-8, 'On Crenellating, in Kent and Beyond - A Retrospection' The Castle Studies Group Journal Vol. 21 p. 189-201 esp p. 196 Coulson, C., 1982, 'Hierarchism in Conventual Crenellation' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 26 p. 94 online copy Page, Wm (ed), 1926, 'Houses of Benedictine monks: The cathedral priory of St Andrew, Rochester' VCH Kent Vol. 2 p. 121-26 Turner, T.H. and Parker, J.H., 1859, Some account of Domestic Architecture in England (Oxford) Vol. 3 part 2 p. 414 online copy
Prior John de Scapeya
Prior John de Scapeya (John Sheppey), succeeded 1333, resigned 1351 (VCH)
More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.
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Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Wednesday, February 20, 2013.