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In 1356 April 25, Richard Englissh, king's yeoman (valletto) (Richard English) was granted, by Edward III, (In year 30 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate manor of Englissh in the town of Newenham (Newnham Murren)
Grant, of special grace, to Richard Englissh, king's yeoman (valletto), and his heirs of free warren in all their demense lands in their manor of Englissh in the town of Newenham, co. Oxford; with further gift to the said Richard of licence to fortify and crenellate a chamber (cameram) in the said manor with a wall of stone and mortar (calce). By p.s. (CChR)

Granted at Westminster. Grant by privy seal.


Newnham Murren Oxon.

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

Richard English
The name Richard English is too common to make identification possible but the term 'king's yeoman' suggests royal service. The Calendar of Patent Rolls for 1348 records a 'Grant for life to the king's yeoman Richard Englissh of the office controller of the custom of wines, wools, hides and wool-fells, as well of the customs of 3d. on the pound and of cloths and other merchandise liable to custom, in the port of Bristol; he taking in the office the usual wages and having one part of the cocket seal in his custody.' (cocket was a custom house seal) In 1353 Richard Englissh and his wife, Alice, were granted the office of the gauging of wine in the town of Bristol. In 1354 he was a commissioner investigating smuggling in Bristol. In 1354 'Grant for life, for service to Queen Philippa, to Alice Englissh of an annuity of £10 at the exchequer.' These can all be safely assumed to be the same courtier. Custom positions, such as that given to Richard, seem to be given to merchants who, presumably, understood trade.

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

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Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.