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Lincoln Castle

Also known as, or recorded in historical documents as;
Nicole

In the civil parish of Lincoln.
In the historic county of Lincolnshire.
Modern Authority of Lincolnshire.
1974 county of Lincolnshire.

OS Map Grid Reference: SK97477187
Latitude 53.23485° Longitude -0.54095°

Lincoln Castle has been described as a certain Timber Castle, and also as a certain Masonry Castle.

There are major building remains.

This site is a scheduled monument protected by law.
This is a Grade 1 listed building protected by law*.

Description

Castle. 1068, C12, C13, C14, C19. Restored C20. Built for William I. Coursed and squared stone and herringbone rubble, with ashlar dressings and slate roofs. PLAN: quadrangular curtain wall, east gateway and lodges, observatory tower, Lucy Tower (keep), west gate, Cobb Hall (north-east angle tower). EXTERIOR: restored curtain wall has a crenellated parapet and wall walk. East gateway, C11, extended C14, has a restored double chamfered gateway and above, semicircular tourelles, each with a doorway. Between them, a pointed wall. Under the entrance arch, a C11 tunnel vault. Inside the gateway, a pair of crenellated mid C19 lodges in the form of a barbican. Semicircular western ends, 2 storeys, each with 3 stone mullioned double lancets on each floor, with hoodmoulds. Between them, a pointed archway with crenellated crest. On the north wall inside the gateway, a reset canted C15 oriel window with 3 ogee headed lancets and crocketed pinnacles, from a house in the High Street opposite St Mary's Guildhall. Square observatory tower, C11, to south-east, has C14 eastern additions and extensive mid C19 remodelling. String course, corbelled and crenellated C19 parapets, single lancet windows. West side has a garderobe shaft in the form of a buttress, flanked to left by a pointed doorway with a lancet above it. East side has square corner towers. South side has sham arrow slits. Above, to east, a chamfered pointed doorway and a similarly chamfered ogee headed doorway, C14. In the south-west corner, a C19 round tower with stepped rectangular lights. To the south, the motte and Lucy Tower, late C12, restored C19. Roofless. Polygonal plan with string course, plain buttresses, and consolidated parapet. Projecting north-eastern gateway with billeted round arched outer opening and segmental inner opening with hoodmould. South-western minor entrance has a segmental head. To the south-west, a small roofless chamber. Square west gatehouse, C11, rebuilt 1233, has a blocked round headed opening with an inserted doorway flanked by the remains of barbican walls. Above, 2 slit windows and a blocked access doorway to the right. Cobb Hall, C13, reduced in height and remodelled C19, has a semicircular outer face with slit windows, and a square inner face with a chamfered doorway flanked by single slit windows. Crenellated parapet. INTERIOR: 2 storeys with chamfered rib vaulting forming 4 vaulted cells in the lower part and 6 radial cells in the rounded end of the upper storey. This building was formerly used as a place of execution, and fittings for the gallows remain on the outer parapet. (Listed Building Report)

The Castle was built in 1068, in the south-west corner of the Roman station, covering thirteen and three-quarter acres including the ditches. In the curtain wall are two principal gates, one to the east opening up to the upper city and the other to the west opening direct into the field. The Norman keep is a fine example of a shell keep. The Norman works consist of the curtain, gateways, observatory tower and the keep. Cobbe Hall and the additions to the Observatory tower and the eastern gateway are probably the works of Thomas of Lancaster, Earl of Lincoln, who held the Castle from 1312 to 1322 (Pevsner; Scheduling report)
Work on the south-west side of the castle bank in 1996 revealed the layered stratigraphy seen previously in 1993, consisting of bands of sandy earth and limestone interleaved with bands of limestone fragments of various sizes. There was no dating evidence (CLAU 1996).
A 1983 trench at the West Gate was reopened in 1992 in order to ascertain whether the trench had cut into the foundations for the West Gate. The bottom of the trench had indeed been cut into the foundations for the West Gate by about 0.4 metres, under the misconception that the layer was natural limestone brash. This supposition was proved incorrect as the excavation moved westwards, revealing a more substantial foundation approximately two metres to the west of the gate entrance (CLAU 1992)
A resistivity survey was conducted in selected areas within the walls of Lincoln Castle. Detailed survey identified a range of electrical anomalies, a number of which almost certainly reflect traces of former buildings or walls. A series of anomalies may reflect traces of the former gaol block and County Hall. Within the Lucy Tower, a penannular shaped anomaly appears to indicate the position of an internal structure(s) around a central courtyard (PCC 2004).
Two trial trenches were excavated within the Lucy Tower, investigating the east and west recesses. The recesses were proved not to have been original to the plan of the tower. Pottery evidence suggested that the tower was undergoing repairs during the 13th century. This may be related to damage inflicted during the Battle of Lincoln Fair in 1217. Roof tile of late 12th to 13th century date suggests that structures were present within the tower. The intervention in the western recess uncovered a stone with an elaborate mason's mark depicting a fish. The intervention in the eastern tower revealed remains of a doorway and staircase which was probably related to a structure shown on documentary sources. The doorway appears to have been blocked in the early 13th century, although the structure appears to have survived until the 19th century (FAS 2008).
A survey of the historic graffiti in Cobb Hall was carried out. Several previously unrecorded carvings were identified. These include a heraldic shield which has been identified as belonging to the Mortimer family, probably John de Mortimer who was in Edward I's army against Scotland in 1290. Many of the medieval graffiti were probably carved by troops temporarily resident in the castle. These carvings include crosses, figures of men and animals and also several simple geometric carvings which may be game boards. There appears to be little graffiti from the late medieval and post medieval period until the 17th to 18th century (FAS 2008).
A possible historic door opening in the Lucy Tower was investigated. Medieval stonework was recorded behind the 19th century masonry, and elements of the north side of the passageway survived although there was no evidence for the survival of the south side (FAS 2008).
During a watching brief on the Observatory Tower mound, above the car park, evidence of Victorian terracing was seen relating to the period when this site was used as an ornamental garden with tea room. A large quantity of residual medieval and Roman pottery was also recovered. This probably originated in the material of the mound itself which would have been disturbed during terracing. It may also have come from soil brought in from elsewhere during terracing (AAA 2008)
A trial trench evaluation and borehole survey was carried out in February 2009, within the area of the former Debtor's Yard and the Airing Court (the latter is now used as a stone yard) at Lincoln Castle. The four trial trenches produced residual medieval finds, while seven boreholes were inserted into the Debtor's Yard (now a car park), in an attempt to obtain a profile across deposits at the base of the Lucy Tower motte. The results were not conclusive, but the survey appeared to have located deposits relating to the buried extent of the mound (FAS 2009)
An evaluation programme consisting of a topographic and photographic survey followed by the excavation of a single evaluation trench was carried out on the south-western part of the Lucy Tower motte and surrounding gardens following tree clearance. The topographic survey showed that the motte had undergone alterations in the 19th century but is otherwise considered to be in its original form. The 19th century alterations include the encroachment of Castle Moat House itself on the lower slopes and also a network of paths up the mound which survive as shallow terraces and remains of a zig-zag path. The evaluation trench revealed remains of possible stone structures which are interpreted as traces of a west wing to Lucy Tower. It is suggested that the west wing may have fallen out of use early, maybe in the 13th century, leaving vestigial traces that were later recorded and misinterpreted in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is also suggested that this building, along with the tower, motte and eastern wing, were built inside the southern defences of the castle, which would have been formed by the remains of Roman defences. The current southern curtain wall may have been built as an internal wall which later became the main southern wall of the castle after its defences contracted. It is likely that the Roman remains formed the southern defences of the castle until the 13th century (FAS 2009)
The City of Lincoln Archaeology Unit undertook a watching brief in May 1990 during the excavation of trial trenches, test pits and boreholes during investigation of the stability of Lincoln Castle. In the area of the North Bank, east to west aligned surfaces were identified in trial trench 4. In test pit 5, the extension to Cobb Hall was reidentified. In this area, Roman and medieval pottery and bone fragments were also found. In the area of the West Bank, bone and a few fragments of Roman pottery was found. In the South Bank area, three courses of steos onto a base of stone were found (ALCE 1990)
A measured survey and archaeological appraisal of the west mural wing of Lucy Tower was undertaken by Field Archaeology Specialists in March and April 2011. Four phases of remodelling and additions were revealed (FAS 2011)
Two trenches were excavated as part of an evaluation on the North Lawn of Lincoln Castle {PRN 70129a although also at SK 97537 71856 in trench 2} by Field Archaeology Specialists in July to August 2010. Evidence for a late 11th to 12th to early 14th century stone building, possibly a Norman hall, in the form of stone rubble walls and a possible earth and stone bank was revealed. Three hearths were also excavated, one of which contained an iron knife blade, a pre 13th century iron barrel padlock, a fragment of bone mount or plaque and pottery dating from the early to mid 11th to 12th centuries. Other features which were revealed were a pit with mid 11th to mid 12th century Stamford ware pottery, a possible ditch which contained a pottery assemblage broadly dating to the late 12th century, a sherd of residual late Saxon local ware pottery and animal bone from high quality meat and a possible pit contained a late 10th to late 11th century pottery assemblage. A metalled surface constructed of limestone rubble signals the demolition of the stone structure. Various robbers trenches (dating from the 17th to 19th century) were also revealed showed that the walls for a possible cellar and a 14th century stone building which may have survived until the late 18th century were robbed out in the post medieval period (see PRN 71146) (FAS 2010)
During evaluation in the Eastern Courtyard at Lincoln Castle in 2011, layers containing about thirty fragments of 12th to 15th century pottery, including Glazed Lincoln ware, Toynton ware jugs, Potterhanworth ware and shell tempered ware and animal bones were revealed suggesting activity on the site marking the beginning of the castle occupation. The animal remains include vension and other game indicative of an elite diet. A robber trench and ceramic building material suggests the erection of a building within the bailey of the castle in the mid 12th to mid 13th century. It was probably stone built and heated with a partly glazed tiled roof, decorative glazed ridge tiles and a louvre for smoke ventilation, all suggested from artefactual evidence. Animal remains from normal domesticated animals and more elite foods such as eel and veal were found in association with the building. A fragment of metal spur was also found. All of this evidence suggests that this was a high status building. Robber trenches which were dated to the 17th century, originally excavated to remove the wall stone, suggest that the building existed until the 17th century (FAS 2011) (Lincolnshire HER)

The early tenurial history of Lincoln is complex. The original 'castle' mentioned in Domesday occupied an area equivalent to 166 houses (This is not the same as 166 houses were destroyed to build the castle as earlier, literalistic, readings of Domesday have suggested - some houses may well have been destroyed but Domesday was a financial assessment and the Survey was interested in actual and potential rents.) This is calculated to be the whole of the upper Roman city (Stocker 2004 p. 9). William I built a castle in 1068, although quite what this castle was in uncertain but there is some evidence of repair of all the Roman gateways of the upper city. It does seem the area of the castle was quite soon narrowed down to the south-west corner of the upper city (although the whole upper city, an area known as 'The Bail' continued to have a somewhat different status to the lower city and considerable extra-mural parts of Lincoln). It may well be that William did not intend for Lincoln to be a royal castle and there is a suggestion that he intended to create an earl of Lincoln or that the bishop was to have considerably secular power (c.f. Durham - However note also that in 1068 while Lincoln was in the see of the bishop the seat of the bishopric was at Dorchester, in Oxfordshire, and was not transferred to Lincoln until 1072-3). However, the earldom of Lincoln was not created until 1141 and the initial castle was possibly jointly held by a royal Constable, the Sheriff of Lincoln (possibly sometimes the same person although Countess Lucy, an exceptional woman, may have been constable via her position as wife of Ivo Tailbois (and daughter of the last Saxon Sheriff) and the bishop of Lincoln. The large motte with the shell keep known as the Lucy Tower may represent the royal holding and the smaller motte (The Observatory Tower) that of the bishop (However Pamela Marshall (Lindley 2004 p. 63) argues the Observatory Tower motte was built by Countess Lucy). The removal of the bishop from the castle in the 1130's to his palace allowed the creation of the earldom although the tenure of the castle was contested in the Anarchy. The resulting agreement for Earl Ranulf to hold a certain tower, previously fortified by the Countess Lucy is not, in a meaningful sense, a licence to crenellate although has been called this by some.

It has been incorrectly suggested that a Royal licence to crenellate was granted in 1146 (Click on the date for details of this supposed licence.).

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Sources of information, references and further reading
  • Websites (Gatehouse is not responsible for the content of external websites.)
  • Books
    • Goodall, John, 2011, The English Castle 1066-1650 (Yale University Press) passim
      Osborne, Mike, 2010, Defending Lincolnshire: A Military History from Conquest to Cold War (The History Press) p. 26-28, 31, 35-7, 38, 39, 58, 91
      Purton, P.F., 2009, A History of the Early Medieval Siege c. 450-1220 (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press) p. 271, 326
      Lindley, Philip (ed), 2004, The Early History of Lincoln Castle (Society for Lincolnshire History and Archaeology Occasional Papers 12)
      Salter, Mike, 2002, The Castles of the East Midlands (Malvern: Folly Publications) p. 54-7
      Pettifer, A., 1995, English Castles, A guide by counties (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 143-4
      Coulson, Charles, 1994, 'The Castles of the Anarchy' in King, Edmund (ed.), The Anarchy of King Stephen's Reign (Oxford University Press) p. 88-9
      Roffe, David, 1993, 'Castles' in Bennett, S. and Bennett, N. (eds), An Historical Atlas of Lincolnshire (University of Hull Press) p. 40-1
      Pevsner, Nikolaus and John Harris; revised by Nicholas Antram, 1989, Buildings of England: Lincolnshire (Harmondsworth)
      Brown, R.Allen, 1989, Castles from the Air (Cambridge University Press) p. 147-49
      Drage, C., 1987, 'Urban castles' in Schofield, J. and Leech, R. (eds) Urban Archaeology in Britain (CBA Research Report 61) p. 117-32 online copy
      King, D.J.C., 1983, Castellarium Anglicanum (London: Kraus) Vol. 1 p. 261-2
      Fry, P.S., 1980, Castles of the British Isles (David and Charles) p. 254-6
      Renn, D.F., 1973 (2 edn.), Norman Castles of Britain (London: John Baker) p. 226-7
      Colvin, H.M., Brown, R.Allen and Taylor, A.J., 1963, The history of the King's Works Vol. 2: the Middle Ages (London: HMSO) p. 704-5
      Hill, J.W.F., 1948, Mediaeval Lincoln (Cambridge) p. 82-106
      Armitage, Ella, 1912, The Early Norman Castles of the British Isles (London: John Murray) p. 166-8 online copy
      Hamilton Thompson, A., 1912, Military Architecture in England during the Middle Ages (London) p. 39-41, 114-15 online copy
      Harvey, Alfred, 1911, Castles and Walled Towns of England (London: Methuen and Co)
      Sympson, E.Mansel, 1906, Lincoln, a historical and topographical account of the city (London)
      Mackenzie, J.D., 1896, Castles of England; their story and structure (New York: Macmillan) Vol. 1 p. 432-8 online copy
      Clark, G.T., 1884, Mediaeval Military Architecture in England (Wyman and Sons) Vol. 2 p. 189-201 online copy
      Turner, T.H. and Parker, J.H., 1859, Some account of Domestic Architecture in England (Oxford) Vol. 3 Part 2 p. 227-8 online copy
      King, Edward, 1782, Observations on Antient Castles (London) p. 85-90
      Buck, Samuel and Nathaniel, 1774, Buck's Antiquities (London) Vol. 1 p. 170
  • Periodical Articles
    • 2013 Sept, 'Lincoln Castle' Castle Studies Group Bulletin Vol. 16 p. 3 (news report on redevelopment)
      2012, 'Lincoln Castle successful in £12M Lottery grant' Castle Studies Group Bulletin Vol. 14 p. 7
      Flanagan, Derry, 2010, 'Lincoln Castle' Castle Studies Group Journal Vol. 23 p. 120-23 (News report regard funding of new exhibition)
      Marshall, P., 2006, 'Three urban castles and their communities in the east midlands: Lincoln, Nottingham and Newark' Château Gaillard Vol. 22 p. 259-65
      Guy, Neil, 2005-6, 'Lincoln Castle' Castle Studies Group Journal Vol 19 p. 235-8
      Creighton, O.H., 2004, ''The Rich Man in his Castle, The Poor Man at His Gate': Castle Baileys and Settlement Patterns in Norman England' Château Gaillard Vol. 21 p. 25-36
      Stocker, D. and Vince, A., 1997, 'The early Norman castle at Lincoln and a re-evaluation of the original west tower of Lincoln cathedral' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 41 p. 223-33 online copy
      Donel, L., 1992, 'Lincoln Castle' Current Archaeology Vol. 129 p. 380-1
      Harfield, C.G., 1991, 'A Hand-list of Castles Recorded in the Domesday Book' English Historical Review Vol. 106 p. 371-392 view online copy (subscription required)
      Otter, M,, 1989, 'Castle West Gate' Lincoln Archaeology 1988-9 p. 13-16
      Youngs, S.M. et al, 1988 'Medieval Britain and Ireland in 1987' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 32 p. 261 download copy
      Miles, P.R., 1988, 'Castle West Gate' Archaeology in Lincolnshire 1987-8: Fourth Annual Report of the Trust for Lincolnshire Archaeology
      Guy, C.J., 1987, 'Castle West Gate' Archaeology in Lincolnshire 1986-7: Third Annual Report of the Trust for Lincolnshire Archaeology
      Youngs, S.M., Clark, J. and Barry, T., 1987, 'Medieval Britain and Ireland in 1986' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 31 p. 150 download copy
      Youngs, S.M., Clark, J. and Barry, T., 1985, 'Medieval Britain and Ireland in 1984' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 29 p. 191 download copy
      Stocker, D., 1983, 'Lincoln Castle' Archaeology in Lincoln 1982–1983: eleventh annual report of the Lincoln Archaeological Trust p. 18–27
      Coulson, C., 1982, 'Hierarchism in Conventual Crenellation' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 26 p. 95n2 download copy
      Jones, R.H., 1980, 'Lincoln, castle' Lincolnshire History and Archaeology Vol. 15 p. 73
      Reynolds, Nicholas, 1975, 'Investigations in the Observatory Tower, Lincoln Castle' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 19 p. 201-5 download copy
      Baker, F.T., 1974, 'Newport Arch: East Gate: Lincoln Castle' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 131 p. 378-80
      King, D.J.Cathcart, 1972, 'The Field Archaeology of mottes; Eine kurze übersicht' Château Gaillard Vol. 5 p. 101-112
      Renn, D.F., 1964, 'The first Norman Castles in England 1051-1071' Château Gaillard Vol. 1 p. 125-132
      Brown, R, Allen, 1959, 'A List of Castles, 1154–1216' English Historical Review Vol. 74 p. 249-280 (Reprinted in Brown, R. Allen, 1989, Castles, conquest and charters: collected papers (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 90-121) view online copy (subscription required)
      Brown, R. Allen, 1955, 'Royal Castle-building in England 1154-1216' English Historical Review Vol. 70 (Reprinted in Brown, R. Allen, 1989, Castles, conquest and charters: collected papers (Woodbridge: Boydell Press)) p. 19-64
      Hill, J.W.F., 1946, 'Lincoln Castle' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 103 p. 157-9 online copy
      Hill, J.W.F., 1930, Associated Architectural Societies' reports and papers (Lincoln, York, Northampton, Bedford, Worcester, Leicester and Sheffield) Vol. 40 p. 1-14
      Armitage, E., 1904 April, 'The Early Norman Castles of England' English Historical Review Vol. 19 p. 209-245, 417-455 esp. 236-8 online copy
      Hope, W.H.St J., 1903, 'English Fortresses and Castles of the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 60 p. 85, 87 online copy
      Patrick, G., 1890, 'Notes on Lincoln Castle' Journal of the British Archaeological Association Vol. 46 p. 8-16 online copy
      Clark, G.T., 1889, 'Contribution towards a complete list of moated mounds or burhs' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 46 p. 197-217 esp. 208 online copy
      Clark, G.T., 1876, 'Lincoln Castle' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 33 p. 212-28 (reprinted in MMA) online copy
      Hartshorne, 1848, Archaeological Institute p. 38-45
      Willson, 1848, Archaeological Institute p. 280-92
      Englefield, H.C., 1782, 'Additions to Mr. King's account of Lincoln Castle' Archaeologia Vol. 6 p. 376-80
      King, Edward, 1782, 'Sequel to the observations on Ancient Castles' Archaeologia Vol. 6 p. 261-6 (reprinted in Antient Castles)
  • Guidebooks
    • Sancha, S., 1985, Lincoln Castle: the medieval story (Lincoln: Lincolnshire County Council)
      Elliott, H. and Stocker, D., 1984, Lincoln Castle (Lincoln: Lincolnshire County Council)
      Anon, n.d. (after 1938), (Sleaford)
      Anon, 1938, (Lincoln)
      Clark, G.T., 1875, Lincoln Castle (Pamphlet based on address to Lincoln Diocesan ArchitecturalSociety) online copy
  • Primary (Medieval documents or transcriptions of such documents - This section is far from complete and the secondary sources should be consulted for full references.)
    • Garmonsway, G.N. (ed), 1953, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle p. 202
      1086, Domesday Book online copy
      Cronne, H.A. and Davis, R.H.C. (eds), 1968, Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum Vol. 3 p. 64-5 online copy
      Ingram, James, (ed) 1912, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Everyman Press, London) Worcester Chronicle AD1067; Laud AD1140 view online transcription (Ingram's translation and notes date from 1823. More recent translations of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles should be consulted for serious study)
      le Prevost, A. (ed), 1840, Orderici Vitalis, Historiae Ecclesiaticae (Paris) Vol. 2 p. 184, 185 online copy
      Foster, C.W. (ed), 1931, The Registrum Antiquissimum of the Cathedral Church of Lincoln (Lincoln Record Society 27) p. 267, 287-8
      Stenton, D.M. (ed.), 1927, The Great Roll of the Pipe for the fifth year of the reign of King Richard the First, Michaelmas 1193 (Pipe Roll 39) (Pipe Roll Society Publications 41)
      Stubbs, W. (ed), 1880, The Minor Works comprising the Gesta regum with its continuation, the Actus pontificum, and the Mappa mundi, by Gervase, the Monk of Canterbury (London: Longman Rolls series 73) Vol. 2 p. 430 online copy
      Rickard, John, 2002, The Castle Community. The Personnel of English and Welsh Castles, 1272-1422 (Boydell Press) (lists sources for 1272-1422) p. 291-3
      E101/484/10 (Survey of 1 Edward III) The National Archives reference
      E317 Lincs/24-5 (Survey of Commonwealth) The National Archives reference
      SP14/49/82 (Survey of 1609) The National Archives reference
  • Antiquarian (Histories and accounts from late medieval and early modern writers)
    • Camden, Wm, (ed. Richard Gough), 1806 (2edn), Britannia Vol. 2 p. 365-6 and plate ix hypertext critical edition by Dana F. Sutton (2004)
      Chandler, John, 1993, John Leland's Itinerary: travels in Tudor England  (Sutton Publishing) p. 292
      Toulmin-Smith, Lucy (ed), 1907, The itinerary of John Leland in or about the years 1535-1543 (London: Bell and Sons) Vol. 1 p. 29 online copy
  • Other sources: Theses; 'grey' literature; in-house reports; unpublished works; etc.
    • Fradley, Michael, 2011, The Old in the New: Urban Castle Imposition in Anglo-Norman England, AD1050-1150 (University of Exeter PhD Thesis) available via EThOS
      Field Archaeology Specialists, 2011, Archaeological Evaluation at the Eastern Courtyard, Lincoln Castle, Lincoln (Intervention Report)
      Field Archaeology Specialists, 2011, Historic Building Investigation of the West Mural Wing, Lucy Tower, Lincoln Castle (Intervention Report)
      Field Archaeology Specialists, 2010, Archaeological Evaluation and Watching Brief at North Lawn, Lincoln Castle, Lincoln (Intervention Report)
      Field Archaeology Specialists, 2010, Castle Moat House, Lincoln: Archaeological Evaluation (Intervention Report)
      Field Archaeology Specialists, Apr 2009, Heritage Skills Centre, Lincoln Castle, Lincoln. Archaeological Evaluation (Intervention Report) online copy
      Allen Archaeological Associates, 2008, Archaeological Watching Brief: The Observatory Tower, Lincoln Castle, Lincoln (Intervention Report) online copy
      Field Archaeology Specialists, 2008, Investigation of Historic Door Opening, Lucy Tower, Lincoln Castle (Intervention Report) online copy
      Field Archaeology Specialists, 2008, Historic Graffiti Survey: Cobb Hall, Lincoln Castle (Intervention Report)
      Field Archaeology Specialists, 2008, Lucy Tower, Lincoln Castle, Lincoln: Archaeological Evaluation (Intervention Report)
      Pre-Construct Geophysics, May 2004, Lincoln Castle Resistivity Survey (Intervention Report)
      Trimble, R., 2003, Gas Mains Renewal and Removal of Overburden, Lincoln Castle Archaeological Wathing Brief (Lincoln Archaeology 507) online copy
      City of Lincoln Archaeology Unit, 1996, Lincoln Castle, West Bank Stability Works: Archaeological Watching Brief (CLAU Archaeological Report 270) online copy
      City of Lincoln Archaeology Unit, Dec 1996, 41-59 Westgate, Lincoln (CLAU Archaeological Report 269) online copy
      City of Lincoln Archaeology Unit, Nov 1993, Lincoln Castle Observatory Tower Mound - Retaining Wall (CLAU Archaeological Report 71) online copy
      City of Lincoln Archaeology Unit, Nov 1993, Lincoln Castle West Bank Remedial Works (CLAU Archaeological Report 66) online copy
      City of Lincoln Archaeology Unit, June 1993, Lincoln Castle West Bank Remedial Works (CLAU Archaeological Report 45) online copy
      City of Lincoln Archaeology Unit, Aug 1992, Lincoln Castle re-examination of 1983 trench at West Gate (CLAU Archaeological Report 28) online copy
      City of Lincoln Archaeology Unit, July 1992, Lincoln Castle: Stability Survey (CLAU Archaeological Report 13) online copy
      Allot & Lomax Consulting Engineers, 1990, Lincoln Castle Stability Investigation Geotechnical Report (Unpublished document)
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The author and compiler of Gatehouse does not receive any income from the site and funds it himself. The information within this site is provided freely for educational purposes only.
The bibliography owes much to various bibliographies produced by John Kenyon for the Council for British Archaeology, the Castle Studies Group and others.
Suggestions for finding online and/or hard copies of bibliographical sources can be seen at this link.
Minor archaeological investigations, such as watching brief reports, and some other 'grey' literature is most likely to be held by H.E.R.s but is often poorly referenced and is unlikely to be recorded here, or elsewhere, but some suggestions can be found here.
The possible site or monument is represented on maps as a point location. This is a guide only. It should be noted that OS grid references defines an area, not a point location. In practice this means the actual center of the site or monument may often, but not always, be to the North East of the point shown. Locations derived from OS grid references and from latitude longitiude may differ by a small distance.
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This record last updated on Saturday, November 15, 2014

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