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Tower of London

Also known as, or recorded in historical documents as;
White Tower; magnae turris Londoniae; Turris Lundoniae

In the civil parish of Stepney.
In the historic county of City of London.
Modern Authority of London Borough of Tower Hamlets.
1974 county of Greater London.

OS Map Grid Reference: TQ336804
Latitude 51.50803° Longitude -0.07606°

Tower of London has been described as a certain Masonry Castle, and also as a certain Palace, and also as a certain Artillery Fort.

There are major building remains.

This site is a scheduled monument protected by law.
This is a Grade 1 listed building protected by law*.

Description

Great C11 tower built within Roman wall and by River Thames. Expanded as castle and palace almost continually since then with significant C13 curtain wall and bailey and other masonry work of many other periods. Legge's Mount and Brass Mount are early artillery bastions.

On capturing London, still enclosed by its Roman walls, William I secured his position by the construction of two major castles. One of them (later known as Baynard's Castle) was located in the western part of the city and the other, now known as the Tower of London, was in the south-east corner. The Tower of London takes its name from the White Tower, a keep of distinctive form which served as both a defensible stronghold and a palatial residence. Building was under way by c. 1080, and complete by 1101 when the Tower served as a prison for Ranulf Flambard, Bishop of Durham. The White Tower measures 36m x 32.5m (118 feet x 106 feet 6 inches) and stands 27.5m (90 feet) high with four corner turrets. It is built of Caen stone and the walls were originally whitewashed - hence its name. The entrance on the south side was at first floor level, and was approached by stairs in a forebuilding. The plan is the same on all floors. It is dictated by the presence, on the second floor, of the Chapel of St John with its apsed east end, and a large cross wall which divides each floor into two. To the west of the wall is a large room, to the east a smaller room and the chapel or its crypt or sub-crypt. The present third floor and roof are late medieval additions. William's castle bailey was defended on its south and east sides by the Roman town wall and on the north and west sides by a bank and ditch. In the late 12th century, probably under Richard I, the bailey was extended to the west and a part of the new defences was formed by Bell Tower at the south-west corner and an adjacent stretch of wall to the east. (Parnell)

On the east side stands the royal fortress, of tremendous size and strength, whose walls and floors rise up from the deepest foundations – the mortar being mixed with animal's blood. (William FitzStephen)

This tower is a Citadell, to defend or commaund the Citie: a royall place for assemblies, and treaties. A Prison of estate, for the most daungerous offenders: the onely place of coynage for all England at this time: the armorie for warlike prouision: the Treasurie of the ornaments and Jewels of the crowne, and generall conseruer of the most Recordes of the kings Courts of iustice at Westminster. (Stow)

Although within the city walls of London the Tower of London was never administratively within the the city of London but an independent administrative unit in its own right along with the land within a bow shot around the castle.

World Heritage Site 488

Links to archaeological and architectural databases, mapping and other online resources

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Sources of information, references and further reading
  • Websites (Gatehouse is not responsible for the content of external websites.)
  • Books
    • Osbourne, Mike, 2012, Defending London (Stroud: The History Press) passim
      Jones, N., 2011, Tower: an epic history of the Tower of London (London: Hutchinson)
      Goodall, John, 2011, The English Castle 1066-1650 (Yale University Press) passim
      Purton, P.F., 2009, A History of the Early Medieval Siege c. 450-1220 (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press) p. 331
      Impey, Edward (ed), 2008, The White Tower (Yale University Press) (major text)
      Humphrys, Julian, 2006, The private life of palaces: fifteen stories from five amazing palaces (Historic Royal Palaces)
      Whipp, David, 2006, The Medieval Postern Gate by the Tower of London (Museum of London Archaeology Service Monograph 26)
      Emery, Anthony, 2006, Greater Medieval Houses of England and Wales Vol. 3 Southern England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) p. 244-5 (slight)
      Diehl, D. and Donnelly, M.P., 2005, Tales from the Tower of London (Stroud: Sutton Publishing)
      Keevill, Graham, 2004, The Tower of London Moat: Archaeological excavations 1995-9 (Oxford Archaeology, Historic Royal Palaces Monograph 1)
      Salter, Mike, 2002, The Castles of The Thames Valley and The Chilterns (Malvern: Folly Publications) p. 52-61
      Keay, A., 2001, The Elizabethan Tower of London: The Haiward and Gascoyne plan of 1597 (London)
      Fernie, E., 2000, 'Castles, Halls, and Chamber Blocks' in The Architecture of Norman England (Oxford University Press) p. 49-88 esp 55-61
      Lapper, I. and Parnell, G., 2000, Landmarks in History: The Tower of London, a 2000-year History (Oxford)
      Keevill, Graham D., 2000, Medieval Palaces, An Archaeology (Stroud; Tempus) passim
      Parnell, Geoffrey, 1998, The Tower of London. Past and Present (Stroud)
      Wilson, Derek A., 1998 (new edn. (1st pub. 1978)), The Tower of London, a thousand years (London: Allison and Busby)
      Pettifer, A., 1995, English Castles, A guide by counties (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 151-4
      Schofield, J., 1995, Medieval London Houses (Yale University Press) p. 1, 4, 8, 11, 13, 21, 31, 36, 82, 95-6, 97, 101, 112, 135, 149, 150
      Parnell, Geoffrey, 1993, The Tower of London (London: English Heritage)
      Thurley, Simon, 1993, The Royal Palaces of Tudor England (Yale University Press)
      James, T.B., 1990, The Palaces of Medieval England (London; Seaby)
      Fry, P.S., 1990, The Tower of London: Cauldron of England's Past (London)
      Lobel, M.D. (ed), 1989, The City of London from prehistoric times to c.1520 British Atlas of Historic Towns Vol. 3 (Oxford University Press) online copy
      Brown, R.Allen, 1989, Castles from the Air (Cambridge University Press) p. 150-52
      Brown, R.Allen, 1989, 'The White Tower of London' in Brown, R.Allen, Castles, conquest and charters: collected papers (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 177–86
      Brown, R.Allen, 1988, 'The White Tower of London' in B Ford (ed), The Cambridge guide to the arts in Britain. 1. Prehistoric, Roman and early medieval (Cambridge: CUP) p. 254–63
      Llewellyn, J., 1987, The chapels of the Tower of London: the Chapel Royal of St Peter ad Vincula and the Chapel of St John the Evangelist (London)
      Drage, C., 1987, 'Urban castles' in Schofield, J. and Leech, R. (eds) Urban Archaeology in Britain (CBA Research Report 61) p. 117-32 online copy
      King, D.J.C., 1983, Castellarium Anglicanum (London: Kraus) Vol. 1 p. 270-1
      Parnell, G., 1983, A plan of the Tower of London in 1682 (London: London Topographical Society)
      Curnow, P.E., 1982, 'Some observations on the planning and construction of the west curtain at the Tower of London' in Melanges d'Archéologie et d'Histoire Médiévales en I'Honneur du Doyen Michel de Boüard (Librairie Droz; Mémoires et documents publiés par la Société de l'Ecole des chartes 27) p. 65-74
      Colvin, H.M., Ransome, D.R. and Summerson, John, 1982, The history of the King's Works Vol. 4: 1485-1660 (part 2) (London) p. 485-90
      Fry, P.S., 1980, Castles of the British Isles (David and Charles) p. 309-11
      Brown, R.Allen, 1978, 'Architectural description' Brown, R.Allen, in J Charlton (ed), The Tower of London: its Buildings and Institutions (HMSO) p. 38-54
      Curnow, P.E., 1978, 'The Bloody Tower' in J Charlton (ed), The Tower of London: its Buildings and Institutions (HMSO) p. 55-61
      Brown, R.Allen, 1978, 'Architectural history and development to c 1547' in J Charlton (ed), The Tower of London: its Buildings and Institutions (HMSO) p. 24-37
      Parnell, G., 1977, 'Tower of London' Archaeological excavations 1976 (HMSO) p. 28
      Curnow, P.E., 1977, 'The Wakefield Tower, Tower of London' in Apted, M.R. et al (eds), Ancient Monuments and Their Interpretation: Essays Presented to A J Taylor (Phillimore) p. 155-89
      Colvin, H.M., Ransome, D.R. and Summerson, John, 1975, The history of the King's Works Vol. 3: 1485-1660 (part 1) (London) p. 262-277
      Renn, D.F., 1973 (2 edn.), Norman Castles of Britain (London: John Baker) p. 326-31
      Rowse, A.L., 1972, The Tower of London in the History of the Nation (London)
      Minney, Rubeigh James, 1970, The Tower of London (London: Cassell)
      Grimes, 1968, The Excavation of Roman and Mediaeval London (London) esp p. 47-91
      Colvin, H.M., Brown, R.Allen and Taylor, A.J., 1963, The history of the King's Works Vol. 2: the Middle Ages (London: HMSO) p. 706-729 and plate
      Toy, Sidney, 1953, The Castles of Great Britain (Heinemann) p. 68-70
      Bell, W.G., 1935, The Tower of London (London: Duckworth)
      RCHME, 1930, Inventory of Historic Monuments in London Vol. 5: East London (HMSO) p. 74-95, plan, numerous plates online transcription
      Tout, T.F., 1920, Chapters in the Administrative History of Medieval England Vol. 1 (Manchester)
      Armitage, Ella, 1912, The Early Norman Castles of the British Isles (London: John Murray) p. 221-6 online copy
      Hamilton Thompson, A., 1912, Military Architecture in England during the Middle Ages (London) p. 120-4 online copy
      Clapham, A.W., 1912, 'The Tower of London and its Development' in Some Famous Buildings and their Story (London)
      Harvey, Alfred, 1911, Castles and Walled Towns of England (London: Methuen and Co)
      Page, Wm (ed), 1911, 'Ancient earthworks' VCH Middlesex Vol. 2 p. 1-14 online transcription
      Harper, C.G. 1909, The tower of London: fortress, palace and prison
      Sands, H., 1908, in Ditchfield, Memorials of Old London Vol. 1 (London) p. 27-65
      Benham, 1906, Tower of London (London)
      Leveson-Gower, Ronald Charles Sutherland, Lord, 1901-2, The Tower of London 2 vols.
      Mackenzie, J.D., 1896, Castles of England; their story and structure (New York: Macmillan) Vol. 1 p. 104-25 online copy
      Clark, G.T., 1884, Mediaeval Military Architecture in England (Wyman and Sons) Vol. 2 p. 203-72 online copy
      Thornbury, Walter, 1878, Old and New London (Thornbury and Walford) Vol. 2 p. 60-95 online transcription
      Timbs, J. and Gunn, A., 1872, Abbeys, Castles and Ancient Halls of England and Wales Vol. 1 (London) p. 15-32 online copy
      Clark, G.T., 1867, 'Some Particulars Concerning the Military Architecture of the Tower of London' in Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Old London (London)
      Ainsworth, W.H., 1840, The Tower of London (London)
      Britton, J. and Brayley, E.W., 1830, Memoirs of the Tower of London (London)
      Bayley, J., 1821, The History and Antiquities of the Tower of London (London)
      Buck, Samuel and Nathaniel, 1774, Buck's Antiquities (London) Vol. 1 p. 182-3
      Grose, Francis, 1785 (new edn orig 1756), Antiquities of England and Wales (London) Vol. 3 p. 140-2 online copy
  • Periodical Articles
    • Parnell, G., 2013, ‘The Great Hall in the inmost ward, Tower of London’ London Archaeologist Vol 13.8 p. 211-214
      Guy, Neil, 2011-12, 'The Rise of the Anti-clockwise Newel Stair' Castle Studies Group Journal Vol. 25 p. 113-174 online copy
      Guy, Neil, et al, 2011-12, 'CSG Annual Conference April 2011' Castle Studies Group Journal Vol. 25 p. 29-54
      Parnell, G., 2011, ‘Putting the barracks back in the Tower of London’ London Archaeologist Vol. 12:12 p. 325-30
      Burton, Peter, 2010-11, 'Original castle gates and doors – A Survey' Castle Studies Group Journal Vol. 24 p. 246-59 online copy
      Parnell, G., 2010, 'Old views shed new light on the Tower of London: the photographic survey of the Tower by Henry Dages and Alfred Harman, 1861' Stereo World Vol. 35.6 p. 16-29
      Miers, M., 2006, 'The king's bedchamber' Country Life Vol. 200.45 p. 74-77
      O'Regan, H., Turner, A. and Sabin, R. 'Medieval big cat remains from the Royal Menagerie at the Tower of London' International Journal of Osteoarchaeology Vol. 16 p. 385-94
      2004-5, 'Tower of London Moat: New Discoveries' Castle Studies Group Bulletin Vol. 18 p. 81-2 (news report)
      Ashbee, J., 2004, 'The Tower of London and the Jewish expulsion of 1290' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 55 p. 35-7 download copy
      Ashbee, Jeremy, 2001-2002, 'The White Tower (as the Normans built it)' Castle Studies Group Newsletter No. 15 p. 21-22 online copy
      Sanderson, R. and Garner, K., 2001, 'Conservation of Reigate stone at Hampton Court Palace and HM Tower of London' Journal of Architectural Conservation Vol. 7.3 p. 7-23
      Marshall, Pamela, 1999-2000, 'The White Tower Conference' Castle Studies Group Newsletter No. 13 p. 7-9 online copy
      Ashbee, J., 1999, 'A Mediaeval Garden at the Tower of London' London Gardener Vol. 5 p. 11-14
      Quiney, Anthony, 1999, 'Hall or Chamber? That Is the Question. The Use of Rooms in Post-Conquest Houses' Architectural History Vol. 42 p. 24-46
      Parnell, Geoffrey, 1998, 'The White Tower : Tower of London' Country Life Vol. 192:28 p. 86-89
      Impey, E., 1998, 'The western entrance to the Tower of London, 1240-1241' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 48 p. 59-76 download copy
      Storey, Randall, 1998, 'The Tower of London and the garderobae armorum ' Royal Armouries Yearbook Vol. 3 online copy
      1997-98, 'Tower of London' Castle Studies Group Newsletter No. 11 p. 21, 24 online copy
      Singer, C., 1997, 'The Tower of London and its constables' Family History Monthly Vol. 20 p. 48-57
      Keevil, G., 1997, 'The Tower of London' Current Archaeology Vol. 154 p. 384-7
      Hutchinson, M., 1997, 'Edward IV's Bulwark; Excavations at Tower Hill, London, 1985' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 47 p. 103-144 download copy
      Higham, Bob, 1996-97, 'The Tower of London moat' Castle Studies Group Newsletter No. 10 p. 45-6 online copy
      Thurley, Simon, 1995, 'The Royal Lodgings at the Tower of London 1240-1320' Architectural History Vol. 38 p. 36-7
      Hiller, J. and Keevill, G., 1995, 'Recent archaeological work at the Tower of London' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 45 p. 147-81 download copy
      Carpenter, David, 1994, 'King Henry III and the Tower of London' London Journal Vol. 19 p. 95-107 (Reprinted in Carpenter, D., 1996, The Reign of Henry III (Cambridge))
      Moore, S., 1994 May, 'Whitewashing the Bloody Tower' The Field p. 81-83
      Price, C.A., 1993-4, 'Preventative conservation of salt-contaminated masonry in the Wakefield Tower, HM Tower of London' University of London Institute of Archaeology Bulletin Vol. 30 p. 121-33
      Worsley, Giles, 1993, 'The Tower of London' Country Life Vol. 187:14 p. 48-51
      Parnell, Geoffrey, 1992, 'The rise and fall of the Tower of London' History Today Vol. 42:3 p. 13-19
      Tatton-Brown, Tim, 1991, 'Medieval building stone at the Tower of London' London Archaeologist 6.13 p. 361-6 online copy
      Thompson, M.W., 1986, 'Associated monasteries and castles in the Middle Ages: a tentative list' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 143 p. 319
      Parnell, G., 1985, 'The Roman and medieval defences and the later development of the inmost ward, Tower of London: excavations 1955–77' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 36 p. 1–79 download copy
      Richardson, Beth, 1984, 'Excavation Round-up 1983' London Archaeologist 4.14 p. 390 online copy
      Youngs, S.M., Clark, J. and Barry, T.B., 1984, 'Medieval Britain and Ireland in 1983' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 28 p. 233 download copy
      Parnell, G., 1983, 'A carpenter's mark from the Martin Tower, Tower of London' London Archaeologist 4.11 p. 297–8 online copy
      Parnell, G., 1983, 'The Re-fortification of the Tower of London 1679-1686' The Antiquaries Journal Vol. 63.2 p. 37-43
      Parnell, G., 1983, 'Excavations at the Salt Tower, Tower of London, 1976' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 34 p. 95–106 download copy
      Parnell, G., 1983, 'The western defences of the inmost ward, Tower of London' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 34 p. 107–50 download copy
      Parnell, G., 1982, 'The excavation of the Roman city wall at the Tower of London and Tower Hill, 1954–76' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 33 p. 85–13 download copy
      Tomlinson, H., 1982 April, 'Ordnance building at the Tower of London' History Today Vol. 32 p. 43-7
      Youngs, S.M. and Clark, J., 1982, 'Medieval Britain in 1981' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 26 p. 194 download copy
      Youngs, S.M. and Clark, J., 1981, 'Medieval Britain in 1980' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 25 p. 201 download copy
      Kenyon, J.R., 1981 'Early Artillery Fortifications in England and Wales: a Preliminary Survey and Re-appraisal' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 138 p. 220
      Parnell, G., 1980, 'The Tower of London: the reconstruction of the inmost ward during the reign of Charles II' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 31 p. 147-56 download copy
      Parnell, G., 1979, 'Observations on Tower Green' London Archaeologist 3.12 p. 320-6 online copy
      Sturdy, D., 1979, 'Nine hundred years of the Tower' London Archaeologist 3.10 p. 270-3 online copy
      Brown, R.Allen, 1979, 'Some observations on the Tower of London' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 136 p. 99-108 (Reprinted in Brown, R.Allen, 1989, Castles, conquest and charters: collected papers (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 163–76)
      Cowie, L.W., 1978, 'Kings in the Tower of London' History Today Vol. 28.9 p. 589-96, 629
      Curnow, P., 1977, 'The Wakefield Tower, Tower of London' Château Gaillard Vol. 8 p. 87-102
      Parnell, G., 1977 'Tower of London' CBA Calendar of Excavations, summaries 1976 p. 9
      Parnell, G., 1977, 'Excavations at the Tower of London, 1976/7' London Archaeologist Vol. 3.4 p. 97-9 online copy
      Curnow, P.E., 1977, 'The Wakefield Tower, Tower of London' Château Gaillard, 8 p. 87-101
      Sturdy, D., 1976, 'Mid Pleasures and Palaces: Archaeological Work at the Royal Sites of London' London Archaeologist Vol. 2.16 p. 417-22 online copy
      King, D.J.C. and Alcock, L., 1969, 'Ringworks in England and Wales' Château Gaillard Vol. 3 p. 90-127
      Davidson, Brian K., 1969, 'Early earthwork castles: a new model' Château Gaillard Vol. 3 p. 37-47
      Davison, B.K., 1967, 'Three eleventh-century earthworks in England: Their Excavation and Implications' Château Gaillard Vol. 2 p. 39-48 esp. 40-3
      Hurst, D Gillian, 1964, 'Medieval Britain in 1962 and 1963, II. Post-Conquest' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 8 p. 255-6 download copy
      Brown, R, Allen, 1959, 'A List of Castles, 1154–1216' English Historical Review Vol. 74 p. 249-280 (Reprinted in Brown, R. Allen, 1989, Castles, conquest and charters: collected papers (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 90-121) view online copy (subscription required)
      1958, Medieval Archaeology Vol. 2 p. 201
      Blackiston, N., 1957, 'The Great Storehouse in the Tower' Architectural Review Vol. 121 p. 453
      Brown, R. Allen, 1955, 'Royal Castle-building in England 1154-1216' English Historical Review Vol. 70 (Reprinted in Brown, R. Allen, 1989, Castles, conquest and charters: collected papers (Woodbridge: Boydell Press)) p. 19-64
      Harvey, J.H., 1948, 'The Western Entrance to the Tower' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 9.1 p. 20-35 download copy
      Braun, H. S., 1937, 'London's First Castle' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 7 p. 445-51 (on foundation history) download copy
      Roth, 1934-5, Transactions of the RIBA (ser3) Vol. 42 p. 863-70 (on the White Tower)
      Sands, H., 1913, 'Extracts from the Documentary History of the Tower of London' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 70 p. 17-32 online copy
      Sands, H., 1912, 'Extracts from the Documentary History of the Tower of London' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 69 p. 161-72 online copy
      Peers, C.R., 1912, 'Notes on the Development of the Tower of London' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 69 p. 173-82 online copy
      Hopwood, 1911, Journal of the British Archaeological Association Vol. 17 p. 171-82
      Compton, C.H., 1900, 'On the discoveries at the Tower of London in the spring of 1899' Journal of the British Archaeological Association Vol. 6 p. 26-32 online copy
      Birch, G.H., 1898, 'The Two Chapels in the Tower of London' Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society Vol. 21 p. 175-89 online copy
      Compton, 1881, Journal of the British Archaeological Association Vol. 37 p. 279-84
      Hugo, T., 1860, 'A memoir of the Bell Tower in the Tower of London' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 1 p. 211-24 online copy
  • Guidebooks
    • Impey, E. and Parnell, G., 2000, The Tower of London: Official Illustrated History (London, Merrell)
      Chamberlin, R., 1989, The Tower of London: an illustrated history (Exeter: Webb & Bower)
      Mears, K.J.. 1988, The Tower of London: 900 years of English history (Oxford: Phaidon)
      Hammond, P., 1987, Her Majesty’s royal palace and fortress of the Tower of London (London: DOE)
      Brown, R.Allen and Curnow, P.E.. 1984, Tower of London, Greater London (HMSO)
      Hammond, P., 1981, The Tower of London Young Visitor’s Guide (HMSO)
      Hammond, P., 1978, Royal Fortress: the Tower of London Through Nine Centuries (HMSO)
      Hamilton, Hamish, 1978, The Tower, 1078-1978 (D Wilson)
      Rowse, A.L., 1977, The Tower of London (Joseph)
      Anon, 1974, The Tower of London (HMSO)
      Anon, 1961, The Tower of London (HMSO)
      Anon, 1947, The Tower of London (HMSO)
  • Primary (Medieval documents or transcriptions of such documents - This section is far from complete and the secondary sources should be consulted for full references.)
    • Hearne, T. (ed), 1720, Textus Roffensis (Oxford) p. 212 online copy (see also Sawyer, Peter, 1962, Early English Manuscripts in Facsimile, vol. XI: Textus Roffensis, Part II (Copenhagen: Rosenkilde and Bagger))
      Pipe Rolls 1129-30, 1171-2, 1172-8, 1180s, 1190 (see Pipe Roll Society for published references)
      Stubbs, W. (ed), 1869, Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene (Rolls Series 51) Vol. 3 p. 33
      William FitzStephen, c. 1180, 'A description of London' translated in Henry Thomas Riley (ed), 1860, Liber Custumarum (Rolls Series 12) Vol. 2 p. 2-15 online copy
      Stubbs, W. (ed), 1880, The Minor Works comprising the Gesta regum with its continuation, the Actus pontificum, and the Mappa mundi, by Gervase, the Monk of Canterbury (London: Longman Rolls series 73) Vol. 2 p. 426 online copy
      Rickard, John, 2002, The Castle Community. The Personnel of English and Welsh Castles, 1272-1422 (Boydell Press) (lists sources for 1272-1422) p. 297-304
      B.M. Harleian MS. 1326, ff. 96-125 (Survey of 1623) British Library collection information
  • Antiquarian (Histories and accounts from late medieval and early modern writers)
  • Other sources: Theses; 'grey' literature; in-house reports; unpublished works; etc.
    • Fradley, Michael, 2011, The Old in the New: Urban Castle Imposition in Anglo-Norman England, AD1050-1150 (University of Exeter PhD Thesis) available via EThOS
      Ryder, Charles, 2011, The spiral stair or vice: Its origins, role and meaning in medieval stone castles (PhD Thesis University of Liverpool) p. 141-47 Download via
      White, H., 2010, Legge's Mount, The Tower of London, London Scientific Analysis of The Cupels (English Heritage Research Department Report Series No. 57)
      White, H. and Kearns, T., 2010, Legge's Mount, The Tower of London, London: Scientific Analysis of The Cupels (English Heritage Research Department Report Series No. 76)
      Ashbee, Jeremy, 2006, The Tower of London as a royal residence: 1066-1400 (Thesis (PhD)-University of London Courtauld Institute of Art)
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Suggestions for finding online and/or hard copies of bibliographical sources can be seen at this link.
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This record last updated on Saturday, November 15, 2014

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