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Shrewsbury Town Wall

In the civil parish of Shrewsbury.
In the historic county of Shropshire.
Modern Authority of Shropshire.
1974 county of Shropshire.
Medieval County of Shropshire.

OS Map Grid Reference: SJ490125
Latitude 52.70506° Longitude -2.75418°

Shrewsbury Town Wall has been described as a certain Urban Defence.

There are masonry ruins/remnants remains.

This site is a scheduled monument protected by law.
This is a Grade 2* listed building protected by law*.


The street immediately below the castle was crossed by two gates 40yds apart the lower gate, known as Castle or North Gate, stood just below Meadow Place. Removed some time before 1825. The gate was described thus in 1808 by Owen: Flanked with round towers and having a chamber over its pointed arch. A part of the southern tower is still (1808) standing, and in an elegant canopied niche, once within the chamber, is the figure of an angel bearing a shield with the arms of England and France quarterly. It appears from the union rose which embellishes the niche that the gate was not older than the time of Henry VII. A drawbridge was placed in front of it in the Civil War (Owen). Known, in the state described, from various illustrations, notably J Buckler's, published in Owen & Blakeway (1825), and various MS drawings in Owen's Etchings, vol.3 (SRRC); these illustrations show that the towers were semi-circular in plan to the front (north/outside), rectangular within; one of the drawings shows the main arch as being of a pointed four-centred form. 'Topographer', writing in 1898, noted an entry in the Corporation Order Book for the demolition of the Lower Gate in February 1773; the south tower was retained until its demolition in 1825. The cellars of Castle Vaults P.H. (16-17 Castle Gates) were investigated by a UAD field visit in 1996 to determine whether any of the gate structure was incorporated: while much stonework was present, it appeared to have been re-used to build a sub-structure contemporary with the (19th-C) standing building. (Shropshire HER)

The town walls date from the 13th century (though earlier phases of town defences for Shrewsbury have been suggested, little is known about these). In 1218 Henry III ordered the townsmen to strengthen and enclose the town. Many repairs and alterations were subsequently made and are evidenced in the documents (Vaughan 1994)
Where the 13th century town wall has been identified, it has a number of distinctive characteristics. It was constructed of red and purple sandstone blocks bonded in a greenish, gritty mortar, was of about 1.8m width and had a chamfered plinth course near the base of its outer face (Barker 1960) (Hannaford 2001)
The early defences of the town had relied primarily on the river, with its limited crossing points, and the castle to guard the narrow land access to the north. With the unrest at the beginning of the 13th century the town was provided with a defensive circuit consisting of a stone wall with an external ditch. This work was finished by 1242, when rights of murage are first recorded and excess stone was granted to the Dominican Friars. Where they have been investigated archaeologically, the preparation works for the building of the wall removed all earlier deposits and features. A clay bank up to 7 feet high and 30 feet wide was created - though this could conceivably be of an earlier period than the wall itself. The wall was 4.5 feet (1.37m) thick and had a rubble core. Its external face had a chamfered plinth which varied in height from 2 feet to 2.5 feet (0.61m-0.76m), stepping down to conform to the slope. An original wall height of 15 to 20 feet has been postulated. By the 15th century, however, timber framed houses were being built behind and on the wall, and some parts of the wall, behind Pride Hill and Castle Street, had beed demolished and reused as foundations for town houses. This may have been a result of the pacification of Wales, after which Shrewsbury's strategic importance declined (Nash 2004). (Shropshire HER)

Site in loop of river, the castle at the isthmus. Wall followed top of slope. Some parts survive, with a square tower and a water-gate. Defences date back to Saxon times. First murage granted in 1220 and continuously thereafter until middle of C15. The medieval Welsh bridge is described by Leland as 'at one end of it is a large gate which allows access to the town; at the other end, facing Wales, is a might strong tower which prevents enemies from getting on to the bridge."
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This record last updated 26/07/2017 09:21:30

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